Glycoscience Leukemia Breakthrough

Scientists have found that leukemia cells have altered cell surface carbohydrates. This is a remarkable discovery and may change how cancer it treated.

When glycoprotein receptor sites on the surface of human cells become deformed, they can kill you. It is from these little antenna all communication is made to support life. You have some 56 quintillion receptor sites (give or take a few trillion). Every single antenna is constructed from Smart Sugars.

When your body does not have enough Smart Sugars, it can manufacture them from glucose and other sugars present. However, the enzymatic gymnastics require so much time and energy that the job is not finished properly. When the job is not finished, the receptors are deformed and malfunction with corrupted signals.

Researchers at Griffith University’s Institute for Glycomics in Australia and The Saban Research Institute of Children’s Hospital Los Angeles have discovered that leukaemic cells have altered cell surface carbohydrates compared to normal cells. Altered cell surface carbohydrates is a critical weakness in leukaemic cells. This knowledge may pave the way for new cancer treatments.

Professor Mark von Itzstein is Director of Griffith University’s Institute for Glycomics and the Australian team leader. He said the discovery is an important advance against leukemia, a cancer of malignant white blood cells that multiply uncontrollably.

Professors Nora Heisterkamp and John Groffen, leaders of the US-based team and Professor von Itzstein and their colleagues have published their research findings in the latest edition of the internationally acclaimed Journal of Experimental Medicine.

We know removal of healthy glycoproteins from the surface of healthy cells will kill healthy cell. So, the immediate response of the researchers is to remove the altered glycoproteins from the cancerous cells thereby killing the cell. Sounds good, but…

Could it be that the scientists are looking through the wrong end of the microscope? It seems more plausible to improve the immune system by making more healthy glycoprotein receptor sites instead of killing the unhealthy cells. That is the job of the immune system. You may be able to do that with additional Smart Sugars in the body which will cut down on the time and energy required for enzymatic gymnastics to produce healthy receptor sites.

More research is needed to determine how beneficial certain sugars are to the human body. Glycoscience work world-wide will provide the information needed so the general public can determine for themselves how best to take control of their own health using Smart Sugars.

Types of Leukemia

Leukemia is caused by excessive production of abnormal or immature blood cells (mostly leukocytes). It starts with problem in DNA of cells. This results in shortage of normal blood cell and body stops working properly.

The production of cells in bone marrow consists of several steps. Cells get converted into many intermediate types before forming white, red cells and platelets.

Bone marrow initially consists of stem cells. Stem cells have three main categories including Hematopoietic, mesenchymal and endothelial stem cells. Of these three types, hematopoietic stem cells are the root of normal cells. Hematopoietics can be classified into Lymphoid and Myeloid cells. Often, the root cause of leukemia is the abnormal production of white cells. White blood cells or leukocytes have many sub types. Few of these types are produced from Lymphoid cells and other are produced from myeloid. Red blood cells and platelets are grown up form of myeloid cells. In leukemia, DNA of cells produced either from lymphoid or myeloid origin becomes damaged. This causes production of abnormal production of white blood cells which eventually crowd out normal blood cell. The cancer caused by myeloid origon is called Myelogenous Leukemia and cancer caused by lymphoid is known as Lymphocytic Leukemia. Myelogenous leukemia and lymphocytic leukemia are the two basic types of leukemia.

Leukemia is further categorized into acute and chronic levels. Including this factor, leukemia has four types including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML).

Acute refers to the fact that this cancer has potential to become fatal in quick time. Acute lymphocytic leukemia requires immediate treatment otherwise recovery becomes impossible. It is mostly seen in childhood. Acute myelogenous and chronic cancer does not require immediate treatment. Patient suffering from chronic leukemia are kept under observation and treated only when leukemia starts to damage body tissues. Chronic type is mostly seen in aged peoples. The treatment options for all leukemia types include chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplant.

Leukemia – Treatment Breakthroughs For Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Recently released news from a U.S. pharmaceutical company stunned the market when they revealed that they had trialed a new drug that may help in the fight against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). About one month ago “Ibrutinib,” a new orally taken drug that is said to be different from traditional chemotherapy treatments by targeting specific processes and preventing tumor metastasis (spread) was announced.

It is said to work by binding to the B-cells (cells that produce antibodies) while not affecting the T-cells (cells that destroy invading pathogens [microorganisms] with perforins [a protein produced by killer cells of the immune system that causes disintegration] and granules [a small particle]).

When chemotherapy is given to a patient, usually it has the effect of causing the T-cells a great deal of damage. Because of this, the side-effects a cancer patient experiences can be quite severe. However, because Ibrutinib does not affect these vitally import T-cells, the adverse side-effects are significantly reduced.

Treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia is considered to be literally lifesaving. So such an important announcement has gathered an awful lot of interest from both researchers and physicians alike. Studies have been impressive, with the results astounding those involved.

One particular study showed where two different groups were trialed with Ibrutinib, one group (81% of patients) was given a 420 mg dose (considered a low dosage), and another group (40% of patients) was given a 840 mg dose (considered a high dosage), the results were unbelievable. These two groups accounted for 74% of all the CLL sufferers involved in the trials. Further more, the trials showed that nearly 90% of patients showed a 50% reduction in lymph nodes.

The trials carried out on the CLL patients themselves has their challenges, as chronic lymphocytic leukemia is in general a very difficult disease to treat at the best of times. Over 40% of patients involved in these trials who had previously been given at least three prior treatments involving chemotherapy and other drugs, had suffered a relapse. Other challenges were age, as over 20% of the patients were over 70 years old.

To sum this up, Ibrutinib showed, and is still showing amazing results, as nearly 80% of those who were trialed are still taking the drug today, and who are showing a 90% response rate. Over 13% of patients have been able to achieve a complete response, and a minority of 3% have been declared in remission and who will be continually monitored in the future. It certainly seems that Ibrutinib has a future!